In the 20s


On 27.09.1923, the loan fee for a boiler is 32,479,000,000 marks. Paid on November 22, 1923 97,864,000,000 Marks. A residual debt of 64.95 gold marks remains.

Foreign exchange problems

A customer from Estonia offers on 07.12.1923 export butter at 300,- Estn. Mark/kg and smoked bacon at 200,- Estn. Mark/kg “duty free” as payment. For comparison: 1,- US$ = 357,50 Estn. Mark.


Trademarks are registered at this time in Italy (Torino), Dublin (Ireland), India (Bombay), Hong Kong and China, among others.